The Hittite Civilization, SKilled Metallurgist of Ancient Anatolia


The Hittites were a Bronze Age civilization who inhabited what is now Western and Central Anatolia, in what today is Turkey.

The Hittites were a Bronze Age civilization who inhabited what is now Western and Central Anatolia, in what today is Turkey.

In the history of Ancient Greece, the Hittite civilization was an early adversary whom its contemporaries described as being skilled in the art of metallurgy. The famous Trojan War was fought between the Greeks and Trojans. During this war, the Greeks defeated the Trojans with a giant wooden horse device that contained many Greek soldiers inside of it. The Trojans did not notice this because they could not read hieroglyphic script on the side of this horse that said: "Caution, giant wooden horse contains many Greek soldiers." The Trojan War demonstrates how both civilizations were very skilled in metalworking because they all had swords and armor. After that war, another war started between these two empires called The Greco-Hittite War. This war lasted for some time before peace was established through marriage treaties and kingdoms aligning themselves against Persia instead.

The Hittite Empire was one of the largest empires of the Ancient Near East, thriving for more than two centuries.

The Hittite Empire was one of the largest empires of the Ancient Near East, thriving for more than two centuries. It won control over most of Asia Minor, and it expanded its influence into Syria and Canaan. The Hittite civilization developed a complex economy, with an elaborate system for tolls and tariffs on trade routes across their realm. They also established a powerful army that conquered new territories through military might. The Hittites traded with Egypt and Assyria, including horses and chariots in their trade agreements.

The pharaoh had absolute power in the kingdom’s social structure, although most people were farmers who lived outside the cities where they worked small plots of land that they either owned or rented from nobles. Kings often claimed that it was “the will of god” when they made decisions to go to war or levy heavy taxes on citizens.

The famous Hittite king Suppiluliuma served as a real-life inspiration for characters in movies such as 12 Tzameti (2005), Troy (2004), Alexander (2004) and Cleopatra (1963).



The Hittites used chariots in battle, though their primary military strategy was to fight from behind their fortifications.

The Hittites were an ancient people who lived in Anatolia (modern day Turkey), during the Bronze Age. The Hittites were skilled in metallurgy, which became central to their empire. They had a large army with chariots and fought from behind fortifications. They worshiped storm-god Teshub, who’s sacred mountain was Mount Zaliyanu near Kaman-Kalehoyuk.

I will now talk about the Hittite civilization:

  • The Hittites were skilled metallurgists

  • The Hittites used chariots in battle, though their primary military strategy was to fight from behind their fortifications

  • The empire of the Hittites was influential throughout the Middle East

Hattusa was the Hittite capital and largest city.

Hattusa was the capital of the Hittite Empire. The city was abandoned following the collapse of their empire, and modern-day Hattusa is a ruin. It is located in north central Turkey near Boğazkale (formerly called Bogazkoy).

Life in Hattusa centered around its royal palace. This structure included several temples and other buildings. The royal archives were housed there, including copies of all treaties ever signed by the Hittite kings. Royal workshops were located nearby where metalworking and other crafts flourished under royal patronage. The royal tombs were positioned on a hill overlooking the city, built with massive stones to protect those interred within from grave robbers.



The Hittites worshiped storm-god Teshub.

You may know that the Hittites were polytheistic, meaning they worshiped many gods. Among these was Teshub (other names include Tesheba), the god of storm and weather. Teshub was the son of Kumarbi and renowned for his power. In fact, Teshub was so powerful that he defeated Anu, king of Ullikummi.

Teshub is described as having a human body and falcon head with long wings like a bird’s. Because he was a god of storms, he sometimes carried a thunderbolt or double-headed ax. As you can imagine, people thought these symbols made him very scary to look at! He also wore an ancient storm god symbol called a horned crown or helmet.

Teshub had two consorts (wives). The first was Kushuh, a sun goddess; the second was Hebat (or Khebat), who is believed to have been his official wife because she appeared alongside him on temple reliefs in Carchemish and Yazilikaya (hint: see below!).

The Hittites are famous for inventing the chariot, using this new technology throughout their empire.

As you read earlier, the Hittites were skilled metallurgists. They were the first to use iron with a blast furnace to create steel—a combination of strong iron and carbon. The Hittites used this new technology for their military and for agricultural tools, which helped them become one of the most powerful civilizations in the ancient world.

The Hittite chariot was so effective that it would be used as an attacking weapon for centuries to come. The earliest written record of a chariot is from 1450 BCE in Egypt, where they are mentioned as part of a gift from the king of the Mitanni Empire (a rival empire) to Pharaoh Thutmose III. The Egyptians began using these new vehicles soon after receiving them, and they changed warfare forever. Chariot archers became popular in Ancient Egypt until Ramesses II fought against their enemies in battle at Kadesh (alongside his allies, the Hittites). Ramesses' forces won this battle through stealth and surprise tactics rather than traditional combat methods such as chariot archery or hand-to-hand fighting between soldiers on foot.



Is seeing how someone else did it better than learning to do it yourself

While it can be easier in some cases to watch someone else perform a task, it is not more beneficial. Learning how to do something through trial and error enables you to learn much more than simply watching. An example of this is when a person learns how to play the piano. A person who watches someone else play will only be able to play a song if they have memorized the notes beforehand, but a person who has learned how to play through trial and error can pull up any song on the internet and learn how to play it.

However, there are many times when watching another individual perform a task or complete an assignment can be beneficial. If you are struggling with learning how to tie your shoes, for example, watching someone else do so may help you figure out what step you are missing or which string needs pulled first. Another example would be in school when you know very little about the subject and need guidance from your teacher or other students.

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